Vocabulary in Paper 4

affront n. insult – (a deliberately offensive act or something producing the effect of an affront; "turning his back on me was a deliberate insult")

appeased v. 1. pacify, conciliate, assuage, appease, mollify, placate, gentle, gruntle – (cause to be more favorably inclined; gain the good will of; "She managed to mollify the angry customer") 2. quell, stay, appease – (overcome or allay; "quell my hunger") 3. propitiate, appease – (make peace with)

appellation n. denomination, designation, appellative – (identifying word or words by which someone or something is called and classified or distinguished from others)

arbitrary adj. (vs. nonarbitrary) – (based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice; "an arbitrary decision"; "the arbitrary rule of a dictator"; "an arbitrary penalty"; "of arbitrary size and shape"; "an arbitrary choice"; "arbitrary division of the group into halves")

ascension n. 1. rise, rising, ascent, ascension – (a movement upward; "they cheered the rise of the hot-air balloon") (astronomy) the rising of a star above the horizon) rise, ascent, ascension, ascending – (the act of changing location in an upward direction)

austere adj. severe, stark – (severely simple; "a stark interior") 2. stern – (of a stern or strict bearing or demeanor; forbidding in aspect; "an austere expression"; "a stern face") 3. ascetic, ascetical, spartan – (practicing great self-denial; "a desert nomad's austere life")

barbarous adj. brutal, cruel, fell, roughshod, savage, vicious – (of persons or their actions) able or disposed to inflict pain or suffering; "a barbarous crime"; "brutal beatings"; "cruel tortures"; "Stalin's roughshod treatment of the kulaks"; "a savage slap"; "vicious kicks") (primitive in customs and culture)

beneficently adv. Characterized by or performing acts of kindness or charity. Producing benefit; beneficial.

cataclysms n. 1. catastrophe – (a sudden violent change in the earth's surface) 2. calamity, catastrophe, disaster, tragedy – (an event resulting in great loss and misfortune; "the whole city was affected by the irremediable calamity"; "the earthquake was a disaster")

compensatory adj. countervailing, offsetting, compensative – (compensating for) compensate v. 1. counterbalance, correct, even out, even off, even up – (adjust or make up for; "engineers will work to correct the effects or air resistance") 2. compensate, recompense, repair, indemnify – (make amends for; pay compensation for; "She was compensated for the loss of her arm in the accident") 3. cover, compensate, overcompensate – (make up for shortcomings or a feeling of inferiority by exaggerating good qualities; "he is compensating for being a bad father") 4. right, compensate, redress, correct – (make reparations or amends for) 5. pay, pay off, make up, compensate – (do or give something to somebody in return; "Does she pay you for the work you are doing?") 6. compensate, recompense, remunerate – (make payment to; compensate; "My efforts were not remunerated")

conspiracies n. A combination of men for an evil purpose; an agreement, between two or more persons, to commit a crime in concert, as treason; a plot. They made a conspiracy against [Amaziah]. (2 Kings xiv.19). An agreement to perform together an illegal, wrongful, or subversive act. A group of conspirators. Law. An agreement between two or more persons to commit a crime or accomplish a legal purpose through illegal action. A joining or acting together, as if by sinister design: a conspiracy of wind and tide that devastated coastal areas.

conversant adj. familiar – (usually followed by "with") well informed about or knowing thoroughly; "conversant with business trends"; "familiar with the complex machinery"; "he was familiar with those roads")

defaults n. (loss due to not showing up; "he lost the game by default") 2. default, nonpayment, nonremittal  (act of failing to meet a financial obligation) 3. default option, default – (an option that is selected automatically unless an alternative is specified)

despicable adj. 1. contemptible – (worthy only of being despised and rejected; "a contemptible lack of courage"; "A little, wretched, despicable creature, a worm, a mere nothing...that has risen up in contempt against the majesty of Heaven and earth"- Jonathan Edwards) 2. ugly, vile, unworthy – (morally reprehensible; "would do something as despicable as murder"; "ugly crimes"; "the vile development of slavery appalled them")

discerned v. recognize, distinguish, pick out, make out, tell apart – (detect with the senses; "I can't discern the faces in this photograph") To perceive with the eyes or intellect; detect. To recognize or comprehend mentally. To perceive or recognize as being different or distinct; distinguish.

disfigurement n. An appearance that has been spoiled or is misshapen; "there were distinguishing disfigurements on the suspect's back"; "suffering from facial disfiguration" [syn: deformity] 2: the act of damaging the appearance or surface of something; "the defacement of an Italian mosaic during the Turkish invasion"; "he objected to the dam's massive disfigurement of the landscape" [syn: defacement]

divert v. 1. deviate, divert – (turn aside; turn away from) 2. divert – (send on a course or in a direction different from the planned or intended one) 3. amuse, divert, disport – (occupy in an agreeable, entertaining or pleasant fashion; "The play amused the ladies") 4. divert, hive off – (withdraw (money) and move into a different location, often secretly and with dishonest intentions)

fictitious adj. 1. fabricated, fancied, fictional, fictitious, invented, made-up – (formed or conceived by the imagination; "a fabricated excuse for his absence"; "a fancied wrong"; "a fictional character"; "used fictitious names"; "a made-up story") 2. assumed, false, fictitious, fictive, pretended, put on, sham – (adopted in order to deceive; "an assumed name"; "an assumed cheerfulness"; "a fictitious address"; "fictive sympathy"; "a pretended interest"; "a put-on childish voice"; "sham modesty")

fortuitous adj. 1. causeless, fortuitous, uncaused – (having no cause or apparent cause; "a causeless miracle"; "fortuitous encounters--strange accidents of fortune"; "we cannot regard artistic invention as...uncaused and unrelated to the times") 2. fortuitous – (occurring by happy chance; "profits were enhanced by a fortuitous drop in the cost of raw materials")

immutable adj. (vs. mutable), changeless – (not subject or susceptible to change or variation in form or quality or nature; "the view of that time was that all species were immutable, created by God")

inaugurated v. kick off – (commence officially) 2. inaugurate – (open ceremoniously or dedicate formally) 3. inaugurate, usher in, introduce – (be a precursor of; "The fall of the Berlin Wall ushered in the post-Cold War period")

indicative adj. (serving to indicate: symptoms indicative of anemia; an insignia indicative of high rank) (pointing out; bringing to notice; giving intimation or knowledge of something not visible or obvious)

inexplicably adv. Difficult or impossible to explain or account for.

inimical adj. unfriendly – (not friendly; "an unfriendly act of aggression"; "an inimical critic") (injurious or harmful in effect; adverse: “habits inimical to good health”) (unfriendly; hostile: “a cold, inimical voice”)

insight n. 1. penetration – (clear or deep perception of a situation) 2. insight, perceptiveness, perceptivity – (a feeling of understanding) 3. insight, brainstorm, brainwave – (the clear (and often sudden) understanding of a complex situation) 4. insight, sixth sense – (grasping the inner nature of things intuitively)

insurrections n. rebellion, revolt, rising, uprising – (organized opposition to authority; a conflict in which one faction tries to wrest control from another) insurrectionary – (of or relating to or given to insurrection)

literal adj. 1. Being in accordance with, conforming to, or upholding the exact or primary meaning of a word or words. 2. Word for word; verbatim: a literal translation. 3. Avoiding exaggeration, metaphor, or embellishment; factual; prosaic: a literal description; a literal mind. 4. Consisting of, using, or expressed by letters: literal notation. 5. Conforming or limited to the simplest, nonfigurative, or most obvious meaning of a word or words.

mar (mar) v. tr. marred, mar-ring, mars. 1. To inflict damage, especially disfiguring damage, on. 2. To impair the soundness, perfection, or integrity of; spoil, injure. n. A disfiguring mark; a blemish. [Middle English merren, from Old English mierran, merran, to impede.] The visible result of an injury : scar, blemish, brand, burn, cicatrix, cut, disfigurement, mar, scratch, wound. To flaw the soundness or perfection of. v. damage, blemish, blight, harm, hurt, impair, injure, mar, spoil, tarnish, vitiate. Antonyms: repair, mend, improve. To alter or spoil the natural form or appearance of. v. deform, disfigure, distort, contort, twist, mar, misshape.

medley n. potpourri, pastiche – (a musical composition consisting of a series of songs or other musical pieces from various sources)

millenniums n. 1. millennium – (a span of 1000 years) 2. millennium – ((New Testament) in Revelations it is foretold that those faithful to Jesus will reign with Jesus over the earth for a thousand years; the meaning of these words have been much debated; some denominations (e.g. Jehovah's Witnesses) expect it to be a thousand years of justice and peace and happiness) 3. millennium – (the 1000th anniversary (or the celebration of it)

pagan n. heathen, infidel – (a person who does not acknowledge God)

perplexity n. (trouble or confusion resulting from complexity)

pertaining v. 1. refer, pertain, relate, concern, come to, bear on, touch, touch on – (have to do with or be relevant to; "There were lots of questions referring to her talk"; "My remark pertained to your earlier comments") 2. pertain, appertain – (be a part or attribute of)

pervaded v. permeate, pervade, penetrate, interpenetrate, diffuse, imbue – (spread or diffuse through; "An atmosphere of distrust has permeated this administration"; "music penetrated the entire building")

perversion n. 1. (a curve that reverses the direction of something; "the tendrils of the plant exhibited perversion"; "perversion also shows up in kinky telephone cords") 2. sexual perversion – (an aberrant sexual practice that is preferred to normal intercourse) 3. perversion – (the action of perverting something (turning it to a wrong use); "it was a perversion of justice")

phenomena n. 1. phenomenon – (any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning) 2. phenomenon – (a remarkable development)

potency n. 1. effectiveness, strength – (capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects; "the toxin's potency"; "the strength of the drinks") 2. potential, potentiality, potency – (the inherent capacity for coming into being) 3. potency – (the state of being potent; a male's capacity to have sexual intercourse)

propitiating v. appease – (make peace with)

providence n. (the guardianship and control exercised by a deity; "divine providence") (a manifestation of God's foresightful care for His creatures) (the prudence and care exercised by someone in the management of resources)

provisionally adv. (temporarily and conditionally; "they have agreed provisionally"; "was appointed provisionally")

quiescence n. dormancy, quiescency – (a state of quiet (but possibly temporary) inaction; "the volcano erupted after centuries of dormancy") quiescency, dormancy, sleeping – (quiet and inactive restfulness)

quotient n. (the ratio of two quantities to be divided) (the number obtained by division)

rectitude n. uprightness as a consequence of being honorable and honest

relic (relik) n. 1. Something that has survived the passage of time, especially an object or a custom whose original culture has disappeared: "Corporal punishment was a relic of barbarism" (Cyril Connolly). 2. Something cherished for its age or historic interest. 3. An object kept for its association with the past; a memento. 4. An object of religious veneration, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of a saint. 5. Or relics. A corpse; remains.[Middle English relik, object of religious veneration, from Old French relique, from Late Latin reliquiae, sacred relics, from Latin, remains, from reliquus, remaining, from relinquere, reliq-, to leave behind. Relinquish.] Something that serves to honor or keep alive a memory : memorial, commemoration, keepsake, memento, monument, relic, remembrance, shrine, souvenir, token. Evidence of a thing that has disappeared : vestige, relic, remains, token, sign, memento, souvenir, record, remnant, trace. Someone who is resistant to change : conservative, anachronism, antediluvian, fogy, fossil, fuddy-duddy, mossback, old fogy, relic, square, stick-in-the-mud (informal).Antonyms: progressive, liberal, innovator. The remains of something destroyed or disintegrated : wreckage, relic, remainder, remnant, ruin, vestige, shell, fallen structure, wrack.

repulsive adj. 1. abhorrent, detestable, obscene, repugnant, repulsive – (offensive to the mind; "an abhorrent deed"; "the obscene massacre at Wounded Knee"; "morally repugnant customs"; "repulsive behavior"; "the most repulsive character in recent novels") 2. repulsive(prenominal) (vs. attractive) – (possessing the ability to repel; "a repulsive force")

revelation n. 1. disclosure, revelation, revealing – (the speech act of making something evident) 2. revelation – (an enlightening or astonishing disclosure) 3. revelation – (communication of knowledge to man by a divine or supernatural agency)

seared v. 1. dry; withered; no longer green; – applied to leaves. scorch – (make very hot and dry; "The heat scorched the countryside") 2. scorch, sear, singe – (become superficially burned; "my eyebrows singed when I bent over the flames") 3. parch, sear – (cause to wither or parch from exposure to heat; "The sun parched the earth") 1. To wither; to dry up. 2. To burn (the surface of) to dryness and hardness; to cauterize; to expose to a degree of heat such as changes the color or the hardness and texture of the surface; to scorch; to make callous; as, to sear the skin or flesh. Also used figuratively. I'm seared with burning steel. --Rowe. It was in vain that the amiable divine tried to give salutary pain to that seared conscience. --Macaulay. The discipline of war, being a discipline in destruction of life, is a discipline in callousness. Whatever sympathies exist are seared. --H. Spencer. Sear is allied to scorch in signification; but it is applied primarily to animal flesh, and has special reference to the effect of heat in marking the surface hard. Scorch is applied to flesh, cloth, or any other substance, and has no reference to the effect of hardness. sear adj : (used especially of vegetation) having lost all moisture; "dried-up grass"; "the desert was edged with sere vegetation"; "shriveled leaves on the unwatered seedlings"; "withered vines" [syn: dried-up, sere, shriveled, shrivelled, withered] v 1: make very hot and dry; "The heat scorched the countryside" [syn: scorch] 2: become superficially burned; "my eyebrows singed when I bent over the flames" [syn: scorch, singe] 3: cause to wither or parch from exposure to heat; "The sun parched the earth" [syn: parch] [Middle English seren, from Old English sarian, to wither, from sar, withered.]

segregated v. 1. segregate – (separate by race or religion; practice a policy of racial segregation; "This neighborhood is segregated"; "We don't segregate in this county") 2. segregate – (divide from the main body or mass and collect; "Many towns segregated into new counties"; "Experiments show clearly that genes segregate") 3. segregate – (separate or isolate (one thing) from another and place in a group apart from others; "the sun degregates the carbon"; "large mining claims are segregated into smaller claims")

sordid adj. 1. seamy, seedy, sleazy, sordid, squalid – (morally degraded; "a seedy district"; "the seamy side of life"; "sleazy characters hanging around casinos"; "sleazy storefronts with...dirt on the walls"- Seattle Weekly; "the sordid details of his orgies stank under his very nostrils"- James Joyce; "the squalid atmosphere of intrigue and betrayal") 2. dirty, sordid – (unethical or dishonest; "dirty police officers"; "a sordid political campaign") 3. flyblown, squalid, sordid – (foul and run-down and repulsive; "a flyblown bar on the edge of town"; "a squalid overcrowded apartment in the poorest part of town"; "squalid living conditions"; "sordid shantytowns") 4. sordid – (meanly avaricious and mercenary; "sordid avarice"; "sordid material interests")

sovereign n. crowned head, monarch – (a nation's ruler or head of state usually by hereditary right)

supernal adj. 1. supernal (vs. infernal) – (being or coming from on high; "interpret the plague as a visitation from heaven, a supernal punishment for the sins of men") 2. celestial, ethereal, supernal – (of heaven or the spirit; "celestial peace"; "ethereal melodies"; "the supernal happiness of a quiet death")

supervene v. (take place as an additional or unexpected development)

travesty n. (a debased or grotesque likeness: a travesty of justice) (a burlesque translation or imitation of a work) farce, farce comedy – (a comedy characterized by broad satire and improbable situations) 2. parody, lampoon, spoof, sendup, mockery, takeoff, burlesque, charade, pasquinade, put-on – (a composition that imitates somebody's style in a humorous way) (disguised by dress so as to be ridiculous; travestied) [F. travesti, p. p. of travestir to disguise, to travesty, It. travestire, fr. L. trans across, over + vestire to dress, clothe.]

unqualified adj. 1. unqualified (vs. qualified) – (not limited or restricted; "an unqualified denial") 2. unqualified (vs. qualified) – (not meeting the proper standards and requirements and training) 3. unentitled, unqualified – (having no right or entitlement; "a distinction to which he was unentitled") 4. unqualified – (lacking specific legal qualifications; "a wife is usually considered unqualified to testify against her husband") 5. incapable, unqualified – (lacking the necessary skill or knowledge etc.; "an incapable helper")

variegated v. (change the appearance of, especially by marking with different colors) 2. vary, variegate, motley – (make something more diverse and varied; "Vary the menu")

watchword n. 1. war cry, rallying cry, battle cry, cry – (a slogan used to rally support for a cause; "a cry to arms"; "our watchword will be `democracy'") 2. password, word, parole, countersign – (a secret word or phrase known only to a restricted group; "he forgot the password")

whimsical adj. capricious, impulsive – (determined by chance or impulse or whim rather than by necessity or reason; "a capricious refusal"; "authoritarian rulers are frequently capricious"; "the victim of whimsical persecutions")

withal adv. withal  (together with this) however, nevertheless, still, yet, all the same, even so, nonetheless, notwithstanding – (despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession); "although I'm a little afraid, however I'd like to try it"; "while we disliked each other, nevertheless we agreed"; "he was a stern yet fair master"; "granted that it is dangerous, all the same I still want to go")